Semester 5

UNIT 1 What Is AI: Foundations, History and State of the Art of AI.

Intelligent Agents: Agents and Environments, Nature of Environments, Structure of Agents.

Problem Solving by searching: Problem-Solving Agents, Example Problems,Searching for Solutions, Uninformed Search Strategies, Informed (Heuristic) Search Strategies, Heuristic Functions.

UNIT 2 Learning from Examples: Forms of Learning, Supervised Learning, Learning Decision Trees, Evaluating and Choosing the Best Hypothesis, Theory of Learning, Regression and Classification with Linear Models, Artificial Neural Networks, Nonparametric Models, Support Vector Machines, Ensemble Learning, Practical Machine Learning
UNIT 3 Learning probabilistic models: Statistical Learning, Learning with Complete Data, Learning with Hidden Variables: The EM Algorithm. Reinforcement learning: Passive Reinforcement Learning, Active Reinforcement Learning, Generalization in Reinforcement Learning, Policy Search, Applications of Reinforcement Learning.
UNIT 1 Introduction:Technical Summary of Linux Distributions, Managing Software
Single-Host Administration:Managing Users and Groups, Booting and shutting down processes, File Systems, Core System Services, Process of configuring, compiling, Linux Kernel
Networking and Security: TCP/IP for System Administrators, basic network Configuration, Linux Firewall (Netfilter), System and network security
UNIT 2 Internet Services:Domain Name System (DNS), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Apache web server, Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), Post Office Protocol and Internet Mail Access Protocol (POP and IMAP), Secure Shell (SSH), Network Authentication, OpenLDAP Server, Samba and LDAP, Network authentication system (Kerberos), Domain Name Service (DNS), Security
UNIT 3 Intranet Services: Network File System (NFS), Samba, Distributed File Systems (DFS), Network Information Service (NIS), Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP), Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP), MySQL, LAMP Applications File Servers, Email Services, Chat Applications, Virtual Private Networking.
UNIT 1 Software Testing and Introduction to quality : Introduction, Nature of errors, an example for Testing, Definition of Quality , QA, QC, QM and SQA , Software Development Life Cycle, Software Quality Factors

Verification and Validation : Definition of V &V , Different types of V & V Mechanisms, Concepts of Software Reviews, Inspection and Walkthrough

Software Testing Techniques : Testing Fundamentals, Test Case Design, White Box Testing and its types, Black Box Testing and its types

UNIT 2 Software Testing Strategies : Strategic Approach to Software Testing, Unit Testing, Integration Testing, Validation Testing, System Testing

Software Metrics : Concept and Developing Metrics, Different types of Metrics, Complexity metrics

Defect Management: Definition of Defects, Defect Management Process, Defect Reporting, Metrics Related to Defects, Using Defects for Process Improvement.

UNIT 3 Software Quality Assurance : Quality Concepts, Quality Movement, Background Issues, SQA activities, Software Reviews, Formal Technical Reviews, Formal approaches to SQA, Statistical Quality Assurance, Software Reliability, The ISO 9000 Quality Standards, , SQA Plan , Six sigma, Informal Reviews

Quality Improvement : Introduction, Pareto Diagrams, Cause-effect Diagrams, Scatter Diagrams, Run charts

Quality Costs : Defining Quality Costs, Types of Quality Costs, Quality Cost Measurement, Utilizing Quality Costs for Decision-Making

UNIT 1 Introduction: Security Trends, The OSI Security Architecture, Security Attacks, Security Services, Security Mechanisms

Classical Encryption Techniques: Symmetric Cipher Model, Substitution Techniques, Transposition Techniques, Steganography, Block Cipher Principles, The Data Encryption Standard, The Strength of DES, AES (round details not expected), Multiple Encryption and Triple DES, Block Cipher Modes of Operation, Stream Ciphers

Public-Key Cryptography and RSA: Principles of Public-Key Cryptosystems, The RSA Algorithm

UNIT 2  Key Management: Public-Key Cryptosystems, Key Management, Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange

Message Authentication and Hash Functions: Authentication Requirements, Authentication Functions, Message Authentication Codes, Hash Functions, Security of Hash Functions and Macs, Secure Hash Algorithm, HMAC

Digital Signatures and Authentication: Digital Signatures, Authentication Protocols, Digital Signature Standard

Authentication Applications: Kerberos, X.509 Authentication, Public-Key Infrastructure

UNIT 3 Electronic Mail Security: Pretty Good Privacy, S/MIME

IP Security: Overview, Architecture, Authentication Header, Encapsulating Security Payload, Combining Security Associations, Key Management

Web Security: Web Security Considerations, Secure Socket Layer and Transport Layer Security, Secure Electronic Transaction

Intrusion: Intruders, Intrusion Techniques, Intrusion Detection

Malicious Software: Viruses and Related Threats, Virus Countermeasures, DDOS

Firewalls: Firewall Design Principles, Types of Firewalls

UNIT 1  IoT-An Architectural Overview: Building architecture, Main design principles and needed capabilities, An IoT architecture outline, standards considerations.

IoT Architecture-State of the Art: Introduction, State of the art, Reference Model and architecture, IoT reference Model – IoT Reference Architecture Introduction, Functional View, Information View, Deployment and Operational View, Other Relevant architectural views

UNIT 2 IoT Data Link Layer and Network Layer Protocols: PHY/MAC Layer(3GPP MTC, IEEE 802.11, IEEE 802.15), Wireless HART,Z-Wave, Bluetooth Low Energy, Zigbee Smart Energy DASH7

Network Layer: IPv4, IPv6, 6LoWPAN, 6TiSCH,ND, DHCP, ICMP, RPL, CORPL, CARP

UNIT 3 Transport layer protocols: Transport Layer (TCP, MPTCP, UDP, DCCP, SCTP)-(TLS, DTLS)

Session layer: Session Layer-HTTP, CoAP, XMPP, AMQP, MQTT

Service layer protocols: Service Layer -oneM2M, ETSI M2M, OMA, BBF

UNIT 1 Web services basics: What Are Web Services? Types of Web Services Distributed computing infrastructure, overview of XML, SOAP, Building Web Services with JAX-WS, Registering and Discovering Web Services, Service Oriented Architecture, Web Services Development Life Cycle, Developing and consuming simple Web Services across platform
UNIT 2 The REST Architectural style : Introducing HTTP, The core architectural elements of a RESTful system, Description and discovery of RESTful web services, Java tools and frameworks for building RESTful web services, JSON message format and tools and frameworks around JSON, Build RESTful web services with JAX-RS APIs, The Description and Discovery of RESTful Web Services, Design guidelines for building RESTful web services, Secure RESTful web services
UNIT 3 Developing Service-Oriented Applications with WCF: What Is Windows Communication Foundation, Fundamental Windows Communication Foundation Concepts, Windows Communication Foundation Architecture, WCF and .NET Framework Client Profile, Basic WCF Programming, WCF Feature Details. Web Service QoS
UNIT 1 Mathematics for Computer Graphics, DirectX Kickstart:

Cartesian Coordinate system: The Cartesian XY-plane, Function Graphs, Geometric Shapes, Polygonal Shapes, Areas of Shapes, Theorem of Pythagoras in 2D, Coordinates, Theorem of Pythagoras in 3D, 3D Polygons, Euler’s Rule

Vectors: Vector Manipulation, multiplying a Vector by a Scalar, Vector Addition and Subtraction, Position Vectors, Unit Vectors, Cartesian Vectors, Vector Multiplication, Scalar Product, Example of the Dot Product, The Dot Product in Lighting Calculations, The Dot Product in Back-Face Detection, The Vector Product, The Right-Hand Rule, deriving a Unit Normal Vector for a Triangle Areas, Calculating 2D Areas

Transformations: 2D Transformations, Matrices, Homogeneous Coordinates, 3D Transformations, Change of Axes, Direction Cosines, rotating a Point about an Arbitrary Axis, Transforming Vectors, Determinants, Perspective Projection, Interpolation

DirectX: Understanding GPU and GPU architectures. How they are different from CPU Architectures? Understanding how to solve by GPU?

UNIT 2 DirectX Pipeline and Programming:

Introduction To DirectX 11: COM, Textures and Resources Formats, The swap chain and Page flipping, Depth Buffering, Texture Resource Views,
Multisampling Theory and MS in Direct3D, Feature Levels

Direct3D 11 Rendering Pipeline: Overview, Input  Assembler Stage (IA), Vertex Shader Stage (VS), The Tessellation Stage (TS), Geometry Shader Stage (GS), Pixel Shader Stage (PS), Output merger Stage (OM)
Understanding Meshes or Objects, Texturing, Lighting, Blending.
Interpolation and Character Animation:

Trigonometry: The Trigonometric Ratios, Inverse Trigonometric Ratios, Trigonometric Relationships, The Sine Rule, The Cosine Rule, Compound Angles, Perimeter Relationships

Interpolation: Linear Interpolant, Non-Linear Interpolation, Trigonometric Interpolation, Cubic Interpolation, Interpolating Vectors, Interpolating Quaternions

Curves: Circle, Bezier, B-Splines

Analytic Geometry: Review of Geometry, 2D Analytic Geometry, Intersection Points, Point in Triangle, and Intersection of circle with straight line.

UNIT 3 Introduction to Rendering Engines: Understanding the current market Rendering Engines. Understanding AR, VR and MR.Depth Mappers, Mobile Phones, Smart Glasses, HMD’s

Unity Engine: Multi-platform publishing, VR + AR: Introduction and working in Unity, 2D, Graphics, Physics, Scripting, Animation, Timeline, Multiplayer and Networking, UI, Navigation and Pathfinding, XR, Publishing.

Scripting: Scripting Overview, Scripting Tools and Event Overview

XR: VR, AR, MR, Conceptual Differences. SDK, Devices

Semester 6

Unit 1 Introduction: Introduction to Sensor Networks, unique constraints and challenges. Advantage of Sensor Networks, Applications of Sensor Networks, Mobile Adhoc NETworks (MANETs) and Wireless Sensor Networks, Enabling technologies for Wireless Sensor Networks.

Sensor Node Hardware and Network Architecture: Single-node architecture, Hardware components & design constraints, Operating systems and execution environments, introduction to TinyOS and nesC. Network architecture, Optimization goals and figures of merit, Design principles for WSNs, Service interfaces of WSNs, Gateway concepts.

UNIT 2 Medium Access Control Protocols: Fundamentals of MAC Protocols, MAC Protocols for WSNs, Sensor-MAC Case Study.

Routing Protocols : Data Dissemination and Gathering, Routing Challenges and Design Issues in Wireless Sensor Networks, Routing Strategies in Wireless Sensor Networks.

Transport Control Protocols : Traditional Transport Control Protocols, Transport Protocol Design Issues, Examples of Existing Transport Control Protocols, Performance of Transport Control Protocols.

UNIT 3 Introduction, Wireless Transmission and Medium Access Control: Applications, A short history of wireless communication.

Wireless Transmission: Frequency for radio transmission, Signals, Antennas, Signal propagation, Multiplexing, Modulation, Spread spectrum, Cellular systems.

Telecommunication, Satellite and Broadcast Systems: GSM: Mobile services, System architecture, Radio interface, Protocols, Localization And Calling, Handover, security, New data services; DECT: System architecture, Protocol architecture; ETRA, UMTS and IMT- 2000 .Satellite Systems: History, Applications, Basics: GEO, LEO, MEO; Routing, Localization, Handover.

Unit I Introduction to Cloud Computing, Characteristics and benefits of Cloud Computing, Basic concepts of Distributed Systems, Web 2.0, Service-Oriented
Computing, Utility-Oriented Computing. Elements of Parallel Computing. Elements of Distributed Computing. Technologies for Distributed Computing. Cloud Computing Architecture. The cloud reference model. Infrastructure as a service. Platform as a service. Software as a service. Types of clouds.
Unit II Characteristics of Virtualized Environments. Taxonomy of Virtualization Techniques. Virtualization and Cloud Computing. Pros and Cons of
Virtualization. Virtualization using KVM, Creating virtual machines, oVirt -management tool for virtualization environment. Open challenges of Cloud
Unit III  Introduction to OpenStack, OpenStack test-drive, Basic OpenStack operations, OpenStack CLI and APIs, Tenant model operations, Quotas, Private cloud
building blocks, Controller deployment, Networking deployment, Block Storage deployment, Compute deployment, deploying and utilizing OpenStack in
production environments, Building a production environment, Application orchestration using OpenStack Heat
UNIT 1 Computer Forensics: Introduction to Computer Forensics and standard procedure, Incident Verification and System Identification, Recovery of Erased and damaged data, Disk Imaging and Preservation, Data Encryption and Compression, Automated Search Techniques, Forensics Software

Network Forensic: Introduction to Network Forensics and tracking network traffic, Reviewing Network Logs, Network Forensics Tools, Performing Live Acquisitions, Order of Volatility, Standard Procedure

Cell Phone and Mobile Device Forensics: Overview, Acquisition Procedures for Cell Phones and Mobile Devices

UNIT 2 Internet Forensic: Introduction to Internet Forensics, World Wide Web Threats, Hacking and Illegal access, Obscene and Incident transmission, Domain Name Ownership Investigation , Reconstructing past internet activities and events

E-mail Forensics: e-mail analysis, e-mail headers and spoofing, Laws against e-mail Crime, Messenger Forensics: Yahoo Messenger

Social Media Forensics: Social Media Investigations

Browser Forensics: Cookie Storage and Analysis, Analyzing Cache and temporary internet files, Web browsing activity reconstruction

UNIT 3 Investigation, Evidence presentation and Legal aspects of Digital Forensics: Authorization to collect the evidence, Acquisition of Evidence, Authentication of the evidence, Analysis of the evidence, Reporting on the findings, Testimony

Introduction to Legal aspects of Digital Forensics: Laws & regulations,Information Technology Act, Giving Evidence in court, Case Study – Cyber Crime cases, Case Study – Cyber Crime cases

UNIT 1 Introduction to Information Retrieval: Introduction, History of IR, Components of IR, and Issues related to IR, Boolean retrieval, Dictionaries and tolerant retrieval.
UNIT 2 Link Analysis and Specialized Search: Link Analysis, hubs and authorities, Page Rank and HITS algorithms, Similarity, Hadoop & Map Reduce, Evaluation, Personalized search, Collaborative filtering and content-based recommendation of documents and products, handling “invisible” Web, Snippet generation, Summarization, Question Answering, Cross-Lingual Retrieval.
UNIT 3 Web Search Engine: Web search overview, web structure, the user, paid placement, search engine optimization/spam, Web size measurement, search engine optimization/spam, Web Search Architectures.

XML retrieval: Basic XML concepts, Challenges in XML retrieval, A vector space model for XML retrieval, Evaluation of XML retrieval, Text-centric versus data-centric XML retrieval.

UNIT 1 Introduction to Image-processing System: Introduction, Image Sampling, Quantization, Resolution, Human Visual Systems, Elements of an Image-processing System, Applications of Digital Image Processing

2D Signals and Systems: 2D signals, separable sequence, periodic sequence, 2D systems, classification of 2D systems, 2D Digital filter

Convolution and Correlation: 2D Convolution through graphical method, Convolution through 2D Z—transform, 2D Convolution through matrix analysis, Circular Convolution, Applications of Circular Convolution, 2D Correlation

Image Transforms: Need for transform, image transforms, Fourier transform, 2D Discrete Fourier Transform, Properties of 2D DFT, Importance of Phase, Walsh transform, Hadamard transform, Haar transform, Slant transform, Discrete Cosine transform, KL transform

UNIT 2 Image Enhancement: Image Enhancement in spatial domain, Enhancement trough Point operations, Histogram manipulation, Linear and nonlinear Gray Level Transformation, local or neighborhood operation, Median Filter, Spatial domain High pass filtering, Bit-plane slicing, Image Enhancement in frequency domain, Homomorphic filter, Zooming operation, Image Arithmetic

Binary Image processing: Mathematical morphology, Structuring elements, Morphological image processing, Logical operations, Morphological operations, Dilation and Erosion, Distance Transform

Colour Image processing: Colour images, Colour Model, Colour image quantization, Histogram of a color image

UNIT 3 Image Segmentation: Image segmentation techniques, Region approach, Clustering techniques, Thresholding, Edge-based segmentation, Edge detection, Edge Linking, Hough Transform

Image Compression: Need for image compression, Redundancy in images, Image-compression scheme, Fundamentals of Information Theory, Run-length coding, Shannon-Fano coding, Huffman Coding, Arithmetic Coding, Transform-based compression, Image-compression standard

UNIT 1 Introduction to Data Science: What is Data? Different kinds of data, Introduction to high-level programming language + Integrated Development Environment (IDE), Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) + Data Visualization, Different types of data sources,

Data Management: Data Collection, Data cleaning/extraction, Data Analysis & Modeling

UNIT 2 Data Curation: Query languages and Operations to specify and transform data, Structured/schema based systems as users and acquirers of data Semi-structured systems as users and acquirers of data, Unstructured systems in the acquisition and structuring of data, Security and ethical considerations in relation to authenticating and authorizing access to data on remote systems, Software development tools, Large-scale data systems, Amazon Web Services (AWS)
UNIT 3 Statistical Modelling and Machine Learning: Introduction to model selection: Regularization, bias/variance tradeoff e.g. parsimony, AIC, BIC, Cross-validation, Ridge regressions and penalized regression e.g. LASSO

Data transformations: Dimension reduction, Feature extraction, Smoothing and aggregating

Supervised Learning: Regression, linear models, Regression trees, Time-series Analysis, Forecasting, Classification: classification trees, Logistic regression, separating hyperplanes, k-NN

Unsupervised Learning: Principal Components Analysis (PCA), k-means clustering, Hierarchical clustering, Ensemble methods

UNIT 1 Information Security: Attacks and Vulnerabilities: 

Introduction to information security: Asset, Access Control, CIA, Authentication, Authorization, Risk, Threat, Vulnerability, Attack, Attack Surface, Malware, Security-Functionality-Ease of Use Triangle

Types of malware: Worms, viruses, Trojans, Spyware, Rootkits

Types of vulnerabilities: OWASP Top 10: Cross-site scripting (XSS), cross-site request forgery (CSRF/XSRF), SQL injection, input parameter manipulation, broken authentication, sensitive information disclosure, XML External Entities, Broken access control, Security Misconfiguration, Using components with known vulnerabilities, Insufficient Logging and monitoring, OWASP Mobile Top 10, CVE Database

Types of attacks and their common prevention mechanisms: Keystroke Logging, Denial of Service (DoS /DDoS), Waterhole attack, brute force, phishing and fake WAP, Eavesdropping, Man-in-the-middle, Session Hijacking, Clickjacking, Cookie Theft, URL Obfuscation, buffer overflow, DNS poisoning, ARP poisoning, Identity Theft, IoT Attacks, BOTs and BOTNETs

Case-studies: Recent attacks – Yahoo, Adult Friend Finder, eBay, Equifax, WannaCry, Target Stores, Uber, JP Morgan Chase, Bad Rabbit

UNIT 2 Ethical Hacking – I (Introduction and pre-attack) 

Introduction: Black Hat vs. Gray Hat vs. White Hat (Ethical) hacking, Why is Ethical hacking needed?, How is Ethical hacking different from security auditing and digital forensics?, Signing NDA, Compliance and Regulatory concerns, Black box vs. White box vs. Black box, Vulnerability Assessment and Penetration Testing.

Approach: Planning – Threat Modeling, set up security verification standards, Set up security testing plan – When, which systems/apps, understanding functionality, black/gray/white, authenticated vs. unauthenticated, internal vs. external PT, Information gathering, Perform Manual and automated (Tools: WebInspect/Qualys, Nessus, Proxies, Metasploit) VA and PT, How WebInspect/Qualys tools work: Crawling/Spidering, requests forging, pattern matching to known vulnerability database and Analyzing results, Preparing report, Fixing security gaps following the report

Enterprise strategy: Repeated PT, approval by security testing team, Continuous Application Security Testing,

Phases: Reconnaissance/foot-printing/Enumeration,

Phases: Scanning, Sniffing

UNIT 3  Ethical Hacking: Enterprise Security

Phases: Gaining and Maintaining Access: Systems hacking – Windows and Linux – Metasploit and Kali Linux, Keylogging, Buffer Overflows, Privilege
Escalation, Network hacking – ARP Poisoning, Password Cracking, WEP Vulnerabilities, MAC Spoofing, MAC Flooding, IP spoofing, SYN Flooding,
Smurf attack, Applications hacking: SMTP/Email-based attacks, VOIP vulnerabilities, Directory traversal, Input Manipulation, Brute force attack,
Unsecured login mechanisms, SQL injection, XSS, Mobile apps security,

Malware analysis: Netcat Trojan, wrapping definition, reverse engineering

Phases: Covering your tracks: Steganography, Event Logs alteration

Additional Security Mechanisms: IDS/IPS, Honeypots and evasion techniques, Secure Code Reviews (Fortify tool, OWASP Secure Coding Guidelines)