Semester 3

Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction: The Python Programming Language, History, features, Installing Python, Running Python program, Debugging : Syntax Errors, Runtime Errors, Semantic Errors, Experimental Debugging, Formal and Natural Languages, The Difference Between Brackets, Braces, and Parentheses,
Variables and Expressions Values and Types, Variables, Variable Names and Keywords, Type conversion, Operators and Operands, Expressions, Interactive Mode and Script Mode, Order of Operations.
Conditional Statements: if, if-else, nested if –else
Looping: for, while, nested loops
Control statements: Terminating loops, skipping specific conditions
Unit 2 Functions: Function Calls, Type Conversion Functions, Math Functions, Composition, Adding New Functions, Definitions and Uses, Flow of Execution, Parameters and Arguments, Variables and Parameters Are Local, Stack Diagrams, Fruitful Functions and Void Functions, Why Functions? Importing with from, Return Values, Incremental Development, Composition, Boolean Functions, More Recursion, Leap of Faith, Checking Types
Strings: A String Is a Sequence, Traversal with a for Loop, String Slices, Strings Are Immutable, Searching, Looping and Counting, String Methods, The in Operator, String Comparison, String Operations.
Unit 3 Lists: Values and Accessing Elements, Lists are mutable, traversing a List, Deleting elements from List, Built-in List Operators, Concatenation, Repetition, In Operator, Built-in List functions and methods
Tuples and Dictionaries: Tuples, Accessing values in Tuples, Tuple Assignment, Tuples as return values, Variable-length argument tuples, Basic tuples operations, Concatenation, Repetition, in Operator, Iteration, Built-in Tuple Functions Creating a Dictionary, Accessing Values in a dictionary, Updating Dictionary, Deleting Elements from Dictionary, Properties of Dictionary keys, Operations in Dictionary, Built-In Dictionary Functions, Built-in Dictionary Methods
Files: Text Files, The File Object Attributes, Directories

Exceptions: Built-in Exceptions, Handling Exceptions, Exception with Arguments, User-defined Exceptions

Unit 4 Regular Expressions – Concept of regular expression, various types of regular expressions, using match function.
Classes and Objects: Overview of OOP (Object Oriented Programming), Class Definition, Creating Objects, Instances as Arguments, Instances as return values, Built-in Class Attributes, Inheritance, Method Overriding, Data Encapsulation, Data Hiding
Multithreaded Programming: Thread Module, creating a thread, synchronizing threads, multithreaded priority queue
Modules: Importing module, Creating and exploring modules, Math module, Random module, Time module
Unit 5 Creating the GUI Form and Adding Widgets:
Widgets: Button, Canvas, Checkbutton, Entry, Frame, Label, Listbox, Menubutton, Menu, Message, Radiobutton, Scale, Scrollbar, text, Toplevel, Spinbox, PanedWindow, LabelFrame, tkMessagebox.
Handling Standard attributes and Properties of Widgets.
Layout Management: Designing GUI applications with proper Layout Management features.
Look and Feel Customization: Enhancing Look and Feel of GUI using different appearances of widgets.
Storing Data in Our MySQL Database via Our GUI : Connecting to a MySQL database from Python, Configuring the MySQL connection, Designing the Python GUI database, Using the INSERT command, Using the UPDATE command, Using the DELETE command, Storing and retrieving data from MySQL database.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction: Data and Information, Data Structure, Classification of Data Structures, Primitive Data Types, Abstract Data Types, Data structure vs. File Organization, Operations on Data Structure, Algorithm, Importance of Algorithm Analysis, Complexity of an Algorithm, Asymptotic Analysis and Notations, Big O Notation, Big Omega Notation, Big Theta Notation, Rate of Growth and Big O Notation.
Array: Introduction, One Dimensional Array, Memory Representation of One Dimensional Array, Traversing, Insertion, Deletion, Searching, Sorting, Merging of Arrays, Multidimensional Arrays, Memory Representation of Two Dimensional Arrays, General Multi-Dimensional Arrays, Sparse Arrays, Sparse Matrix, Memory Representation of Special kind of Matrices, Advantages and Limitations of Arrays.
Unit 2 Linked List: Linked List, One-way Linked List, Traversal of Linked List, Searching, Memory Allocation and De-allocation, Insertion in Linked List, Deletion from Linked List, Copying a List into Other List, Merging Two Linked Lists, Splitting a List into Two Lists, Reversing One way linked List, Circular Linked List, Applications of Circular Linked List, Two way Linked List, Traversing a Two way Linked List, Searching in a Two way linked List, Insertion of an element in Two way Linked List, Deleting a node from Two way Linked List, Header Linked List, Applications of the Linked list, Representation of Polynomials, Storage of Sparse Arrays, Implementing other Data Structures.
Unit 3 Stack: Introduction, Operations on the Stack Memory Representation of Stack, Array Representation of Stack, Applications of Stack, Evaluation of Arithmetic Expression, Matching Parenthesis, infix and postfix operations, Recursion.
Queue: Introduction, Queue, Operations on the Queue, Memory Representation of Queue, Array representation of queue, Linked List Representation of Queue, Circular Queue, Some special kinds of queues, Deque, Priority Queue, Application of Priority Queue, Applications of Queues.
Unit 4 Sorting and Searching Techniques
Bubble, Selection, Insertion, Merge Sort. Searching: Sequential, Binary, Indexed Sequential Searches, Binary Search.
Tree: Tree, Binary Tree, Properties of Binary Tree, Memory Representation of Binary Tree, Operations Performed on Binary Tree, Reconstruction of Binary Tree from its Traversals, Huffman Algorithm, Binary Search Tree, Operations on Binary Search Tree, Heap, Memory Representation of Heap, Operation on Heap, Heap Sort.
Advanced Tree Structures: Red Black Tree, Operations Performed on Red Black Tree, AVL Tree, Operations performed on AVL Tree, 2-3 Tree, B-Tree.
Unit 5 Hashing Techniques
Hash function, Address calculation techniques, Common hashing functions Collision resolution, Linear probing, Quadratic, Double hashing, Bucket hashing, Deletion and rehashing
Graph: Introduction, Graph, Graph Terminology, Memory Representation of Graph, Adjacency Matrix Representation of Graph, Adjacency List or Linked Representation of Graph, Operations Performed on Graph, Graph Traversal, Applications of the Graph, Reachability, Shortest Path Problems, Spanning Trees.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction: Data communications, networks, network types, Internet history, standards and administration.
Network Models: Protocol layering, TCP/IP protocol suite, The OSI model.
Introduction to Physical layer: Data and signals, periodic analog signals, digital signals, transmission impairment, data rate limits, performance.
Digital and Analog transmission: Digital-to-digital conversion, analog-to-digital conversion, transmission modes, digital-to-analog conversion, analog-to-analog conversion.
Unit 2 Bandwidth Utilization: Multiplexing and Spectrum Spreading: Multiplexing, Spread Spectrum
Transmission media: Guided Media, Unguided Media
Switching: Introduction, circuit switched networks, packet switching, structure of a switch.
Introduction to the Data Link Layer: Link layer addressing, Data Link Layer Design Issues, Error detection and correction, block coding, cyclic codes, checksum, forward error correction, error correcting codes, error detecting codes.
Unit 3 Data Link Control: DLC services, data link layer protocols, HDLC, Point-to-point protocol.
Media Access Control: Random access, controlled access, channelization, Wired LANs – Ethernet Protocol, standard ethernet, fast ethernet, gigabit ethernet, 10 gigabit ethernet,
Wireless LANs: Introduction, IEEE 802.11 project, Bluetooth, WiMAX, Cellular telephony, Satellite networks.
Connecting devices and Virtual LANs.
Unit 4 Introduction to the Network Layer: Network layer services, packet switching, network layer performance, IPv4 addressing, forwarding of IP packets, Internet Protocol, ICMPv4, Mobile IP
Unicast Routing: Introduction, routing algorithms, unicast routing protocols.
Next generation IP: IPv6 addressing, IPv6 protocol, ICMPv6 protocol, transition from IPv4 to IPv6.
Unit 5 Introduction to the Transport Layer: Introduction, Transport layer protocols (Simple protocol, Stop-and-wait protocol, Go-Back-n protocol, Selective repeat protocol, Bidirectional protocols), Transport layer services, User datagram protocol, Transmission control protocol,
Standard Client0Server Protocols: World wide-web and HTTP, FTP, Electronic mail, Telnet, Secured Shell, Domain name system.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction to Databases and Transactions
What is database system, purpose of database system, view of data, relational databases, database architecture, transaction management
Data Models
The importance of data models, Basic building blocks, Business rules, The evolution of data models, Degrees of data abstraction.
Database Design, ER Diagram and Unified Modeling Language
Database design and ER Model: overview, ER Model, Constraints, ER Diagrams, ERD Issues, weak entity sets, Codd’s rules, Relational Schemas, Introduction to UML
Unit 2 Relational database model:
Logical view of data, keys, integrity rules, Relational Database design: features of good relational database design, atomic domain and Normalization (1NF, 2NF, 3NF, BCNF).
Relational Algebra and Calculus
Relational algebra: introduction, Selection and projection, set operations, renaming, Joins, Division, syntax, semantics. Operators, grouping and ungrouping, relational comparison.
Calculus: Tuple relational calculus, Domain relational Calculus, calculus vs algebra, computational capabilities
Unit 3 Constraints, Views and SQL
Constraints, types of constrains, Integrity constraints, Views: Introduction to views, data independence, security, updates on views, comparison between tables and views SQL: data definition, aggregate function, Null Values, nested sub queries, Joined relations. Triggers.
Unit 4 Transaction management and Concurrency
Control Transaction management: ACID properties, serializability and concurrency control, Lock based concurrency control (2PL, Deadlocks), Time stamping methods, optimistic methods, database recovery management.
Unit 5 PL-SQL: Beginning with PL / SQL, Identifiers and Keywords, Operators, Expressions, Sequences, Control Structures, Cursors and Transaction, Collections and composite data types, Procedures and Functions, Exceptions Handling, Packages, With Clause and Hierarchical Retrieval, Triggers.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Matrices: Inverse of a matrix, Properties of matrices, Elementary Transformation, Rank of Matrix, Echelon or Normal Matrix, Inverse of matrix, Linear equations, Linear dependence and linear independence of vectors, Linear transformation, Characteristics roots and characteristics vectors, Properties of characteristic vectors, Caley-Hamilton Theorem, Similarity of matrices, Reduction of matrix to a diagonal matrix which has elements as characteristics values.
Complex Numbers: Complex number, Equality of complex numbers,
Graphical representation of complex number(Argand’s Diagram), Polar form of complex numbers, Polar form of x+iy for different signs of x,y, Exponential form of complex numbers, Mathematical operation with complex numbers and their representation on Argand’s Diagram, Circular functions of complex angles, Definition of hyperbolic function, Relations between circular and hyperbolic functions, Inverse hyperbolic functions, Differentiation and Integration, Graphs of the hyperbolic functions, Logarithms of complex quality, j(=i)as an operator(Electrical circuits)
Unit 2 Equation of the first order and of the first degree: Separation of variables, Equations homogeneous in x and y, Non-homogeneous linear equations, Exact differential Equation, Integrating Factor, Linear Equation and equation reducible to this form, Method of substitution.
Differential equation of the first order of a degree higher than the first: Introduction, Solvable for p (or the method of factors), Solve for y, Solve for x, Clairaut’s form of the equation, Methods of Substitution, Method of Substitution.
Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients: Introduction, The Differential Operator, Linear Differential Equation f(D) y = 0, Different cases depending on the nature of the root of the equation f(D) = 0, Linear differential equation f(D) y = X, The complimentary Function, The inverse operator 1/f(D) and the symbolic expiration for the particular integral 1/f(D) X; the general methods, Particular integral : Short methods, Particular integral : Other methods, Differential equations reducible to the linear differential equations with constant coefficients.
Unit 3 The Laplace Transform: Introduction, Definition of the Laplace Transform, Table of Elementary Laplace Transforms, Theorems on Important Properties of Laplace Transformation, First Shifting Theorem, Second Shifting Theorem, The Convolution Theorem, Laplace Transform of an Integral, Laplace Transform of Derivatives,

Inverse Laplace Transform: Shifting Theorem, Partial fraction Methods, Use of Convolution Theorem, Solution of Ordinary Linear Differential Equations with Constant Coefficients, Solution of Simultaneous Ordinary Differential Equations, Laplace Transformation of Special Function, Periodic Functions, Heaviside Unit Step Function, Dirac-delta Function(Unit Impulse Function),

Unit 4 Multiple Integrals: Double Integral, Change of the order of the integration, Double integral in polar co-ordinates, Triple integrals.
Applications of integration: Areas, Volumes of solids.
Unit 5 Beta and Gamma Functions – Definitions, Properties and Problems. Duplication formula.
Differentiation Under the Integral Sign
Error Functions

Semester 4

Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction:History, architecture and its components,Java Class File, Java Runtime Environment, The Java Virtual Machine, JVM Components, The Java API, java platform, java development kit, Lambda Expressions, Methods References, Type Annotations, Method Parameter Reflection, setting the path environment variable, Java Compiler And Interpreter, java programs, java applications, main(), public, static, void, string[] args, statements, white space, case sensitivity, identifiers, keywords, comments, braces and code blocks, variables, variable name
Data types: primitive data types, Object Reference Types, Strings, Auto boxing, operators and properties of operators, Arithmetic operators, assignment operators, increment and decrement operator, relational operator, logical operator, bitwise operator, conditional operator
Unit 2 Control Flow Statements: The If…Else If…Else Statement, The Switch…Case Statement
Iterations: The While Loop, The Do … While Loop, The For Loop, The Foreach Loop, Labeled Statements, The Break And Continue Statements, The Return Statement
Classes: Types of Classes, Scope Rules, Access Modifier, Instantiating Objects From A Class, Initializing The Class Object And Its Attributes, Class Methods, Accessing A Method, Method Returning A Value, Method’s Arguments, Method Overloading, Variable Arguments [Varargs], Constructors, this Instance, super Instance, Characteristics Of Members Of A Class, constants, this instance, static fields of a class, static methods of a class, garbage collection
Unit 3 Inheritance: Derived Class Objects, Inheritance and Access Control, Default Base Class Constructors, this and super keywords. Abstract Classes And Interfaces, Abstract Classes, Abstract Methods, Interfaces, What Is An Interface? How Is An Interface Different From An Abstract Class?, Multiple Inheritance, Default Implementation, Adding New Functionality, Method Implementation, Classes V/s Interfaces, Defining An Interface, Implementing Interfaces.
Packages: Creating Packages, Default Package, Importing Packages,
Using A Package.
Unit 4 Enumerations,Arrays: Two Dimensional Arrays, Multi-Dimensional Arrays, Vectors, Adding Elements To A Vector, Accessing Vector Elements, Searching For Elements In A Vector, Working With The Size of The Vector.
Multithreading: the thread control methods, thread life cycle, the main thread, creating a thread, extending the thread class.

Exceptions: Catching Java Exceptions, Catching Run-Time Exceptions, Handling Multiple Exceptions, The finally Clause, The throws Clause
Byte streams: reading console input, writing console output, reading file, writing file, writing binary data, reading binary data, getting started with character streams, writing file, reading file

Unit 5 Event Handling: Delegation Event Model, Events, Event classes, Event listener interfaces, Using delegation event model, adapter classes and inner classes.
Abstract Window Toolkit: Window Fundamentals, Component, Container, Panel, Window, Frame, Canvas.Components – Labels, Buttons, Check Boxes, Radio Buttons, Choice Menus, Text Fields, Text, Scrolling List, Scrollbars, Panels, Frames
Layouts: Flow Layout, Grid Layout, Border Layout, Card Layout.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction: Embedded Systems and general purpose computer systems, history, classifications, applications and purpose of embedded systems
Core of embedded systems: microprocessors and microcontrollers,RISC and CISC controllers, Big endian and Little endian processors,Application specific ICs, Programmable logic devices, COTS, sensors and actuators, communication interface, embedded firmware, other system components.
Characteristics and quality attributes of embedded systems: Characteristics, operational and non-operational quality attributes.
Unit 2 Embedded Systems – Application and Domain
Specific: Application specific – washing machine, domain specific -automotive.
Embedded Hardware: Memory map, i/o map, interrupt map, processor family, external peripherals, memory – RAM , ROM, types of RAM and ROM, memory testing, CRC ,Flash memory.
Peripherals: Control and Status Registers, Device Driver, Timer Driver – Watchdog Timers.
Unit 3 The 8051 Microcontrollers: Microcontrollers and Embedded processors, Overview of 8051 family.8051 Microcontroller hardware, Input/output pins, Ports, and Circuits, External Memory.
8051 Programming in C: Data Types and time delay in 8051 C, I/O Programming, Logic operations, Data conversion Programs
Unit 4 Designing Embedded System with 8051 Microcontroller: Factors to be considered in selecting a controller, why 8051 Microcontroller, Designing with 8051.
Programming embedded systems: structure of embedded program, infinite loop, compiling, linking and debugging
Unit 5 Real Time Operating System (RTOS): Operating system basics, types of operating systems, Real-Time Characteristics, Selection Process of an RTOS

Design and Development: Embedded system developmentEnvironment – IDE, types of file generated on cross compilation, disassembler/ de-compiler, simulator, emulator and debugging, embedded product development life-cycle, trends in embedded industry

Unit Content
Unit 1 The Mean, Median, Mode, and Other Measures of Central Tendency: Index, or Subscript, Notation, Summation Notation, Averages, or Measures of Central Tendency ,The Arithmetic Mean , The Weighted Arithmetic Mean ,Properties of the Arithmetic Mean ,The Arithmetic Mean Computed from Grouped Data ,The Median ,The Mode, The Empirical Relation Between the Mean, Median, and Mode, The Geometric Mean G, The Harmonic Mean H ,The Relation Between the Arithmetic, Geometric, and Harmonic Means, The Root Mean Square, Quartiles, Deciles, and Percentiles, Software and Measures of Central Tendency.
The Standard Deviation and Other Measures of Dispersion: Dispersion, or Variation, The Range, The Mean Deviation, The Semi-Interquartile Range, The 10–90 Percentile Range, The Standard Deviation, The Variance, Short Methods for Computing the Standard Deviation, Properties of the Standard Deviation, Charlie’s Check, Sheppard’s Correction for Variance, Empirical Relations Between Measures of Dispersion, Absolute and Relative Dispersion; Coefficient of Variation, Standardized Variable; Standard Scores, Software and Measures of Dispersion.
Introduction to R: Basic syntax, data types, variables, operators, control statements, R-functions, R –Vectors, R – lists, R Arrays.
Unit 2 Moments, Skewness, and Kurtosis : Moments , Moments for Grouped Data ,Relations Between Moments , Computation of Moments for Grouped Data, Charlie’s Check and Sheppard’s Corrections, Moments in Dimensionless Form, Skewness, Kurtosis, Population Moments, Skewness, and Kurtosis, Software Computation of Skewness and Kurtosis.
Elementary Probability Theory: Definitions of Probability, Conditional Probability; Independent and Dependent Events, Mutually Exclusive Events, Probability Distributions, Mathematical Expectation, Relation Between Population, Sample Mean, and Variance, Combinatorial Analysis, Combinations, Stirling’s Approximation to n!, Relation of Probability to Point Set Theory, Euler or Venn Diagrams and Probability.
Elementary Sampling Theory : Sampling Theory, Random Samples and Random Numbers, Sampling With and Without Replacement,Sampling Distributions, Sampling Distribution of Means, Sampling Distribution of Proportions, Sampling Distributions of Differences and Sums, Standard Errors, Software Demonstration of Elementary Sampling Theory.
Unit 3 Statistical Estimation Theory: Estimation of Parameters, Unbiased Estimates, Efficient Estimates, Point Estimates and Interval Estimates; Their Reliability, Confidence-Interval Estimates of Population Parameters, Probable Error.
Statistical Decision Theory: Statistical Decisions, Statistical Hypotheses, Tests of Hypotheses and Significance, or Decision Rules, Type I and Type II Errors, Level of Significance, Tests Involving Normal Distributions, Two-Tailed and One-Tailed Tests, Special Tests, Operating-Characteristic Curves; the Power of a Test, p-Values for Hypotheses Tests, Control Charts, Tests Involving Sample Differences, Tests Involving Binomial Distributions.
Statistics in R: mean, median, mode, Normal Distribution , Binomial Distribution, Frequency Distribution in R.
Unit 4 Small Sampling Theory: Small Samples, Student’s t Distribution, Confidence Intervals, Tests of Hypotheses and Significance, The Chi-Square Distribution, Confidence Intervals for Sigma , Degrees of Freedom, The F Distribution.
The Chi-Square Test: Observed and Theoretical Frequencies, Definition of chi-square, Significance Tests, The Chi-Square Test for Goodness of Fit, Contingency Tables, Yates’ Correction for Continuity, Simple Formulas for Computing chi-square, Coefficient of Contingency, Correlation of Attributes, Additive Property of chi-square.
Unit 5 Curve Fitting and the Method of Least Squares: Relationship Between Variables, Curve Fitting, Equations of Approximating Curves, Freehand Method of Curve Fitting, The Straight Line, The Method of Least Squares, The Least-Squares Line, Nonlinear Relationships, The Least-Squares Parabola, Regression, Applications to Time Series, Problems Involving More Than Two Variables.
Correlation Theory: Correlation and Regression, Linear Correlation, Measures of Correlation, The Least-Squares Regression Lines, Standard Error of Estimate, Explained and Unexplained Variation, Coefficient of Correlation, Remarks Concerning the Correlation Coefficient, Product-Moment Formula for the Linear Correlation Coefficient, Short Computational Formulas, Regression Lines and the Linear Correlation Coefficient, Correlation of Time Series, Correlation of Attributes, Sampling Theory of Correlation, Sampling Theory of Regression.
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction: What is software engineering? Software Development Life Cycle, Requirements Analysis, Software Design, Coding, Testing, Maintenance etc.
Software Requirements: Functional and Non-functional requirements, User Requirements, System Requirements, Interface Specification, Documentation of the software requirements.
Software Processes: Process and Project, Component Software Processes. Software Development Process Models.
 Waterfall Model.
 Prototyping.
 Iterative Development.
 Rational Unified Process.
 The RAD Model
 Time boxing Model.
Agile software development: Agile methods, Plan-driven and agile development, Extreme programming, Agile project management, Scaling agile methods.
Unit 2 Socio-technical system: Essential characteristics of socio technical systems, Emergent System Properties, Systems Engineering, Components of system such as organization, people and computers, Dealing Legacy Systems.
Critical system: Types of critical system, A simple safety critical system, Dependability of a system, Availability and Reliability, Safety and Security of Software systems.
Requirements Engineering Processes: Feasibility study, Requirementselicitation and analysis, Requirements Validations, Requirements Management

System Models: Models and its types, Context Models, Behavioural Models, Data Models, Object Models, Structured Methods

Unit 3 Architectural Design: Architectural Design Decisions, System Organisation, Modular Decomposition Styles, Control Styles, Reference Architectures.
User Interface Design: Need of UI design, Design issues, The UI design Process, User analysis, User Interface Prototyping, Interface Evaluation.
Project Management: Software Project Management, Management activities, Project Planning, Project Scheduling, Risk Management.
Quality Management: Process and Product Quality, Quality assurance and Standards, Quality Planning, Quality Control, Software Measurement and Metrics
Unit 4 Verification and Validation: Planning Verification and Validation, Software Inspections, Automated Static Analysis, Verification and Formal Methods. Software Testing: System Testing, Component Testing, Test Case Design, Test Automation.

Software Measurement: Size-Oriented Metrics, Function-Oriented Metrics, Extended Function Point Metrics
Software Cost Estimation: Software Productivity, Estimation Techniques, Algorithmic Cost Modelling, Project Duration and Staffing

Unit 5 Process Improvement: Process and product quality, Process Classification, Process Measurement, Process Analysis and Modeling, Process Change, The CMMI Process Improvement Framework.
Service Oriented Software Engineering: Services as reusable components, Service Engineering, Software Development with Services.
Software reuse: The reuse landscape, Application frameworks, Software product lines, COTS product reuse.
Distributed software engineering: Distributed systems issues, Client–server computing, Architectural patterns for distributed systems, Software as a service
Unit Content
Unit 1 Introduction to Computer Graphics: Overview of Computer Graphics, Computer Graphics Application and Software, Description of some graphics devices, Input Devices for Operator Interaction, Active and Passive Graphics Devices, Display Technologies, Storage Tube Graphics Displays, Calligraphic Refresh Graphics Displays, Raster Refresh (Raster-Scan) Graphics Displays, Cathode Ray Tube Basics, Color CRT Raster Scan Basics, Video
Basics, The Video Controller, Random-Scan Display Processor, LCD displays.
Scan conversion – Digital Differential Analyzer (DDA) algorithm, Bresenhams’ Line drawing algorithm. Bresenhams’ method of Circle drawing, Midpoint Circle Algorithm, Midpoint Ellipse Algorithm, Mid point criteria, Problems of Aliasing, end-point ordering and clipping lines, Scan Converting Circles, Clipping Lines algorithms– Cyrus-Beck, Cohen-Sutherland and Liang-Barsky, Clipping Polygons, problem with multiple components
Unit 2 Two-Dimensional Transformations: Transformations and Matrices, Transformation Conventions, 2D Transformations, Homogeneous Coordinates and Matrix Representation of 2D Transformations, Translations and Homogeneous Coordinates, Rotation, Reflection, Scaling, Combined Transformation, Transformation of Points, Transformation of The Unit Square, Solid Body Transformations, Rotation About an Arbitrary Point, Reflection through an Arbitrary Line, A Geometric Interpretation of Homogeneous Coordinates, The Window-toViewport Transformations.

Three-Dimensional Transformations: Three-Dimensional Scaling, Three-Dimensional Shearing, ThreeDimensional Rotation, Three Dimensional Reflection, ThreeDimensional Translation, Multiple Transformation, Rotation about an Arbitrary Axis in Space, Reflection through an Arbitrary Plane, Matrix Representation of 3D Transformations, Composition of 3D Transformations, Affine and Perspective Geometry, Perspective Transformations, Techniques for Generating Perspective Views, Vanishing Points, the Perspective Geometry and camera models, Orthographic Projections, Axonometric Projections, Oblique Projections, View volumes for projections

Unit 3 Viewing in 3D Stages in 3D viewing, Canonical View Volume (CVV), Specifying an Arbitrary 3D View, Examples of 3D Viewing, The Mathematics of Planar Geometric Projections, Combined transformation matrices for projections and viewing, Coordinate Systems and matrices, camera model and viewing pyramid.
Light: Radiometry,Transport,Equation,Photometry
Color: Colorimetry,ColorSpaces,ChromaticAdaptation, Color Appearance
Unit 4 Visible-Surface Determination: Techniques for efficient Visible Surface Algorithms, Categories of algorithms, Back face removal, The z-Buffer Algorithm, Scan-line method, Painter’s algorithms (depth sorting), Area sub-division method, BSP trees, Visible-Surface Ray Tracing, comparison of the methods.
Plane Curves and Surfaces: Curve Representation, Nonparametric Curves, Parametric Curves, Parametric Representation of a Circle, Parametric Representation of an Ellipse, Parametric Representation of a Parabola, Parametric Representation of a Hyperbola, Representation of Space Curves, Cubic Splines, , Bezier Curves, B spline Curves, B-spline Curve Fit, B-spline Curve Subdivision, Parametric Cubic Curves, Quadric Surfaces. Bezier Surfaces
Unit 5 Computer Animation: Principles of Animation, Key framing, Deformations, Character Animation, Physics-Based Animation, Procedural Techniques, Groups of Objects.
Image Manipulation and Storage: What is an Image? Digital image file formats, Image compression standard – JPEG, Image Processing – Digital image enhancement, contrast stretching, Histogram Equalization, smoothing and median Filtering.