|Unit 1||Computer Abstractions and Technology: Basic structure and operation of a computer, functional units and their interaction. Representation of numbers and characters.
Logic circuits and functions:
Sequential circuits and functions: State diagram and state table; finite state machines and their synthesis.
|Unit 2||Instruction set architectures: Memory organization, addressing and operations; word size, big-endian and littleendian arrangements. Instructions, sequencing. Instruction sets for RISC and CISC (examples Altera NIOS II and Freescale ColdFire). Operand addressing modes; pointers; indexing for arrays. Machine language, assembly language, assembler directives. Function calls, processor runtime stack, stack frame. Types of machine instructions: arithmetic, logic, shift, etc. Instruction sets, RISC and CISC examples.|
|Unit 3||Basic Processor Unit: Main components of a processor: registers and register files, ALU, control unit, instruction fetch unit, interfaces to instruction and data memories. Datapath. Instruction fetch and execute; executing arithmetic/logic, memory access and branch instructions; hardwired and microprogrammed control for RISC and CISC.
Basic I/O: Accessing I/O devices, data transfers between processor and I/O devices.
Interrupts and exceptions: interrupt requests and processing.
|Unit 1||Reasons for Python as the learner’s first programming language. Introduction to the IDLE interpreter (shell) and its documentation. Expression evaluation: similarities and differences compared to a calculator; expressions and operators of types int, float, boolean. Built-in function type. Operator precedence. Enumeration of simple and compound statements. The expression statement. The assert statement, whose operand is a boolean expression (values true or false). The assignment statement, dynamic binding of names to values, (type is associated with data and not with names); automatic and implicit declaration of variable names with the assignment statement; assigning the valueNone to a name. The del (delete) statement. Input/output with print and input functions. A statement list (semicolonseparated list of simple statements on a single line) as a single interpreter command. The import statement for already-defined functions and constants. The augmented assignment statement. The built-inhelp() function. Interactive and script modes of IDLE, running a script, restarting the shell. The compound statement def to define functions; the role of indentation for delimiting the body of a compound statement; calling a previously defined function. Compound data types str, tuple and list (enclosed in quotes, parentheses and brackets, respectively). Indexing individual elements within these types. Strings and tuples are immutable, lists are mutable. Built-in functions min, max, sum. Interactive solution of model problems, (e.g., finding the square root of a number or zero of a function), by repeatedly executing the body of a loop (where the body is a statement list).|
|Unit 2||Advantages of functions, function parameters, formal parameters, actual parameters, global and local variables. The range function, the iterative for statement. The conditional statements if, if-else, if-elif-else. The iterative statements while, while-else, for-else. The continue statement to skip over one iteration of a loop, the break statement to exit the loop. Nested compound statements. Dictionaries: concept of key-value pairs, techniques to create, update and delete dictionary items. Problem-solving using compound types and statements.|
|Unit 3||Anonymous functions. List comprehensions. Gentle introduction to object-oriented programming; using the built-in dir() function, enumerate the methods of strings, tuples, lists, dictionaries. Using these methods for problem-solving with compound types.|
|Unit 1||Introduction to DBMS – Database, DBMS – Definition, Overview of DBMS, Advantages of DBMS, Levels of abstraction, Data independence, DBMS Architecture
Data models – Client/Server Architecture, Object Based Logical Model, Record Based Logical Model ( relational, hierarchical, network)
Entity Relationship Model – Entities, attributes, entity sets, relations, relationship sets, Additional constraints (key constraints, participation constraints, weak entities, aggregation / generalization, Conceptual Design using ER ( entities VS attributes, Entity Vs relationship, binary Vs ternary, constraints beyond ER)
Relational data model– Domains, attributes, Tuples and Relations, Relational Model Notation, Characteristics of Relations, Relational Constraints – primary key, referential integrity, unique constraint, Null constraint, Check constraint
ER to Table– Entity to Table, Relationship to tables with and without key constraints.
|Unit 2||Schema refinement and Normal forms: Functional dependencies, first, second, third, and BCNF normal forms based on primary keys, lossless join decomposition.
Relational Algebra operations (selection, projection, set operations union, intersection, difference, cross product, Joins –conditional, equi join and natural joins, division)
DDL Statements – Creating Databases, Using Databases, datatypes, Creating Tables (with integrity constraints – primary key, default, check, not null), Altering Tables, Renaming Tables, Dropping Tables, Truncating Tables, Backing Up and Restoring databases
DML Statements – Viewing the structure of a table insert, update, delete, Select all columns, specific columns, unique records, conditional select, in clause, between clause, limit, aggregate functions (count, min, max, avg, sum), group by clause, having clause
|Unit 3||Functions – String Functions (concat, instr, left, right, mid, length, lcase/lower, ucase/upper, replace, strcmp, trim, ltrim, rtrim), Math Functions (abs, ceil, floor, mod, pow, sqrt, round, truncate) Date Functions (adddate,
datediff, day, month, year, hour, min, sec, now, reverse)Joining Tables – inner join, outer join (left outer, right outer, full outer)Subqueries – subqueries with IN, EXISTS, subqueries restrictions, Nested subqueries, ANY/ALL clause, correlated subqueriesDatabase Protection: Security Issues, Threats to Databases, Security Mechanisms, Role of DBA, Discretionary Access ControlViews (creating, altering dropping, renaming and manipulating views)DCL Statements (creating/dropping users, privileges introduction, granting/revoking privileges, viewing privileges)
|Unit 1||Recurrence Relations
(a) Functions: Definition of function. Domain, co domain and the range of a function. Direct and inverse images. Injective, surjective and bijective functions. Composite and inverse functions.
(b) Relations: Definition and examples. Properties of relations , Partial Ordering sets, Linear Ordering Hasse Daigrams , Maximum and Minimum elements, Lattices
(c) Recurrence Relations: Definition of recurrence relations, Formulating recurrence relations, solving recurrence relations- Back tracking method, Linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients. Solving linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients of degree two when characteristic equation has distinct roots and only one root, Particular solutions of non linear homogeneous recurrence relation, Solution of recurrence relation by the method of generation functions, Applications- Formulate and solve recurrence relation for Fibonacci numbers, Tower of Hanoi, Intersection of lines in a plane, Sorting Algorithms.
|Unit 2||Counting Principles , Languages and Finite State Machine
(a) Permutations and Combinations: Partition and Distribution of objects, Permutation with distinct and indistinct objects, Binomial numbers, Combination with identities: Pascal Identity, Vandermonde’s Identity, Pascal triangle, Binomial theorem, Combination with indistinct objects.
(b) Counting Principles: Sum and Product Rules, Two-way counting, Tree diagram for solving counting problems, Pigeonhole Principle (without proof); Simple examples, Inclusion Exclusion Principle (Sieve formula) (Without proof).
(c) Languages, Grammars and Machines: Languages , regular Expression and Regular languages, Finite state Automata, grammars, Finite state machines, Gödel numbers, Turing machines.
|Unit 3||Graphs and Trees
(a) Graphs : Definition and elementary results, Adjacency matrix, path matrix, Representing relations using diagraphs, Warshall’s algorithm- shortest path , Linked representation of a graph, Operations on graph with algorithms – searching in a graph; Insertion in a graph, Deleting from a graph, Traversing a graph- Breadth-First search and Depth-First search.
(b) Trees: Definition and elementary results. Ordered rooted tree, Binary trees, Complete and extended binary trees, representing binary trees in memory, traversing binary trees, binary search tree, Algorithms for searching and inserting in binary search trees, Algorithms for deleting in a binary search tree
|Unit 1||Data Presentation Data types : attribute, variable, discrete and continuous variable Data presentation : frequency distribution, histogram o give, curves, stem and leaf display
Data Aggregation Measures of Central tendency: Mean, Median, mode for raw data, discrete, grouped frequency distribution.
Measures dispersion: Variance, standard deviation, coefficient of variation for raw data, discrete and grouped frequency distribution, quartiles, quantiles Real life examples
|Unit 2||Moments: raw moments, central moments, relation between raw and central moments
Measures of Skewness and Kurtosis: based on moments, quartiles, relation between mean, median, mode for symmetric, asymmetric frequency curve.
Correlation and Regression: bivariate data, scatter plot, correlation, nonsense correlation, Karl pearson’s coefficients of correlation, independence.
|Unit 3||Probability : Random experiment, sample space, events types and operations of events
Probability definition : classical, axiomatic, Elementary Theorems of probability (without proof)
0 ≤ P(A) ≤ 1,
P(A ∪ B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A ∩ B)
P (A’) = 1 – P(A)
P(A) ≤ P(B) if A ⊂ B
Conditional probability, ‘Bayes’ theorem, independence, Examples on Probability
Introduction: Open Source, Free Software, Free Software vs. Open Source software, Public Domain Software, FOSS does not mean no cost. History: BSD, The Free Software Foundation and the GNU Project.
Open Source History, Initiatives, Principle and methodologies. Philosophy : Software Freedom, Open Source Development Model Licenses and Patents: What Is A License, Important FOSS Licenses (Apache,BSD,GPL, LGPL), copyrights and copy lefts, Patents Economics of FOSS : Zero Marginal Cost, Income-generation opportunities, Problems with traditional commercial software, Internationalization
Open source vs. closed source, Open source government, Open source ethics. Social and Financial impacts of open source technology, Shared software, Shared source, Open Source in Government.
|Unit 2||Case Studies
Example Projects: Apache web server, GNU/Linux, Android, Mozilla (Firefox), Wikipedia, Drupal, wordpress, GCC, GDB, github, Open Office. Study: Understanding the developmental models, licensings, mode of funding,commercial/non-commercial use. Open Source Hardware, Open Source Design, Open source Teaching. Open source media. Collaboration, Community and Communication
Contributing to Open Source Projects
Introduction to github, interacting with the community on github, Communication and etiquette, testing open source code, reporting issues, contributing code. Introduction to wikipedia, contributing to Wikipedia Or contributing to any prominent open source project of student’s choice. Starting and Maintaining own Open Source Project.
|Unit 3||Understanding Open Source Ecosystem
Open Source Operating Systems: GNU/Linux, Android, Free BSD, Open Solaris. Open Source Hardware, Virtualization Technologies, Containerization Technologies: Docker, Development tools, IDEs, debuggers, Programming languages, LAMP, Open Source database technologies
|Unit 1||Introduction to Soft Skills and Hard Skills
Personality Development: Knowing Yourself, Positive Thinking, Johari’s Window, Communication Skills, Non-verbal Communication, Physical Fitness
Emotional Intelligence: Meaning and Definition, Need for Emotional Intelligence, Intelligence Quotient versus Emotional Intelligence Quotient, Components of Emotional Intelligence, Competencies of Emotional Intelligence, Skills to Develop Emotional Intelligence
Etiquette and Mannerism: Introduction, Professional Etiquette, Technology Etiquette
Communication Today: Significance of Communication, GSC’s 3M Model of Communication, Vitality of the Communication Process, Virtues of Listening, Fundamentals of Good Listening, Nature of Non-Verbal Communication, Need for Intercultural Communication, Communicating Digital World
|Unit 2||Academic Skills
Employment Communication: Introduction, Resume, Curriculum Vitae, Scannable Resume, Developing an Impressive Resume, Formats of Resume, Job Application or Cover Letter
Professional Presentation: Nature of Oral Presentation, Planning a Presentation, Preparing the Presentation, Delivering the Presentation
Job Interviews: Introduction, Importance of Resume, Definition of Interview, Background Information, Types of Interviews, Preparatory Steps for Job Interviews, Interview Skill Tips, Changes in the Interview Process, FAQ During Interviews
Group Discussion: Introduction, Ambience/Seating Arrangement for Group Discussion, Importance of Group Discussions, Difference between Group Discussion, Panel Discussion and Debate, Traits, Types of Group Discussions, topic based and Case based Group Discussion, Individual Traits
|Unit 3||Professional Skills
Creativity at Workplace: Introduction, Current Workplaces, Creativity, Motivation, Nurturing Hobbies at Work, The Six Thinking Hat Method
Ethical Values: Ethics and Society, Theories of Ethics, Correlation between Values and Behavior, Nurturing Ethics, Importance of Work Ethics, Problems in the Absence of Work Ethics
Capacity Building: Learn, Unlearn and Relearn: Capacity Building, Elements of Capacity Building, Zones of Learning, Ideas for Learning, Strategies for Capacity Building
Leadership and Team Building: Leader and Leadership, Leadership Traits, Culture and Leadership, Leadership Styles and Trends, Team Building, Types of Teams,
Decision Making and Negotiation: Introduction to Decision Making, Steps for Decision Making, Decision Making Techniques, Negotiation Fundamentals, Negotiation Styles, Major Negotiation Concepts
Stress and Time Management: Stress, Sources of Stress, Ways to Cope with Stress
|Unit 1||Structure of C program: Header and body, Use of comments. Interpreters vs compilers, Python vs C. Compilation of a program. Formatted I/O: printf(), scanf().
Data: Variables, Constants, data types like: int, float char, double and void, short and long size qualifiers, signed and unsigned qualifiers. Compare with datatypes in Python. Compare static typing in C vs dynamic typing in Python
Variables: Declaring variables, scope of the variables according to block, hierarchy of data types. Compare explicit declarations in C with implicit declarations in Python.
Types of operators: Arithmetic, relational, logical, compound assignment, increment and decrement, conditional or ternary, bitwise and comma operators. Precedence and order of evaluation, statements and Expressions. Automatic and explicit type conversion.
Iterations: Control statements for decision making: (i) Branching: if statement, else.. if statement, (does the writer mean if-else or nested ifs)switch statement. (ii) Looping: while loop, do.. while, for loop. (iii) Jump statements: break, continue and goto.
|Unit 2||Arrays: (One and two dimensional), declaring array variables, initialization of arrays, accessing array elements. Compare array types of C with list and tuple types of Python.
Data Input and Output functions: Character I/O format: getch(), getche(), getchar(), getc(), gets(), putchar(), putc(), puts().
Manipulating Strings: Declaring and initializing String variables, Character and string handling functions. Compare with Python strings.
Functions: Function declaration, function definition, Global and local variables, return statement, Calling a function by passing values.
Recursion: Definition, Recursive functions.
|Unit 3||Pointer: Fundamentals, Pointer variables, Referencing and de-referencing, Pointer Arithmetic, Using Pointers with Arrays, Using Pointers with Strings, Array of Pointers, Pointers as function arguments, Functions returning pointers.
Dynamic Memory Allocation: malloc(), calloc(), realloc(), free() and sizeof operator.Compare with automatic garbage collection in Python.
Structure: Declaration of structure, reading and assignment of structure variables, Array of structures, arrays within structures, structures within structures. Compare C structures with Python tuples.
Unions: Defining and working with unions.
File handling: Different types of files like text and binary, Different types of functions: fopen(), fclose(), fgetc(), fputc(), fgets(), fputs(), fscanf(), fprintf(), getw(), putw(), fread(), fwrite(), fseek().
History of Linux, Philosophy, Community, Terminology, Distributions, Linux kernel vs distribution. Why learn Linux? Importance of Linux in software ecosystem: web servers, supercomputers, mobile, servers.
Installation methods, Hands on Installation using CD/DVD or USB drive.
Linux Architecture, Filesystem basics, The boot process, init scripts, runlevels, shutdown process, Very basic introductions to Linux processes, Packaging methods: rpm/deb, Graphical Vs Command line.
|Unit 2||Graphical Desktop
Session Management, Basic Desktop Operations, Network Management, Installing and Updating Software, Text editors: gedit, vi, vim, emacs, Graphics editors, Multimedia applications.
Command line mode options, Shells, Basic Commands, General Purpose Utilities, Installing Software, User management, Environment variables, Command aliases.
man pages, GNU info, help command, More documentation sources
Filesystem, Filesystem architecture, File types, File attributes, Working with files, Backup, compression
Understanding Linux Security, Uses of root, sudo command, working with passwords, Bypassing user authentication, Understanding ssh
Basic introduction to Networking, Network protocols: http, ftp etc., IP address, DNS, Browsers, Transferring files. ssh, telnet, ping, traceroute, route, hostname, networking GUI.
Basic Shell Scripting
Features and capabilities, Syntax, Constructs, Modifying files, Sed, awk command, File manipulation utilities, Dealing with large files and Text, String manipulation, Boolean expressions, File tests, Case, Debugging, Regular expressions
|Unit 1||Python File Input-Output: Opening and closing files, various types of file modes, reading and writing to files, manipulating directories. Iterables, iterators and their problem solving applications.
Exception handling: What is an exception, various keywords to handle exceptions such try, catch, except, else, finally, raise.
Regular Expressions: Concept of regular expression, various types of regular expressions, using match function.
|Unit 2||GUI Programming in Python (using Tkinter/wxPython/Qt)
What is GUI, Advantages of GUI, Introduction to GUI library. Layout management, events and bindings, fonts, colours, drawing on canvas (line, oval, rectangle, etc.) Widgets such as : frame, label, button, checkbutton, entry, listbox, message, radiobutton, text, spinbox etc
|Unit 3||Database connectivity in Python: Installing mysql connector, accessing connector module module, using connect, cursor, execute & close functions, reading single & multiple results of query execution, executing different types of statements, executing transactions, understanding exceptions in database connectivity.
Network connectivity: Socket module, creating server-client programs, sending email, reading from URL
|Unit 1||Abstract Data Types: Introduction, The Date Abstract Data Type, Bags, Iterators.
Application Arrays: Array Structure, Python List, Two Dimensional Arrays, Matrix Abstract Data Type, Application
Sets and Maps: Sets-Set ADT, Selecting Data Structure, List based Implementation, Maps-Map ADT, List Based Implementation, Multi-Dimensional Arrays-Multi-Array ADT, Implementing Multiarrays, Application
Algorithm Analysis: Complexity Analysis-Big-O Notation, Evaluating Python Code, Evaluating Python List, Amortized Cost, Evaluating Set ADT, Application
Searching and Sorting: Searching-Linear Search, Binary Search, Sorting-Bubble, Selection and Insertion Sort, Working with Sorted Lists-Maintaining Sorted List, Maintaining sorted Lists.
|Unit 2||Linked Structures: Introduction, Singly Linked List-Traversing, Searching, Prepending and Removing Nodes, Bag ADT-Linked List Implementation. Comparing Implementations, Linked List Iterators, More Ways to Build Kinked Lists, Applications-Polynomials
Stacks: Stack ADT, Implementing Stacks-Using Python List, Using Linked List, Stack Applications-Balanced Delimiters, Evaluating Postfix Expressions
Queues: Queue ADT, Implementing Queue-Using Python List, Circular Array, Using List, Priority Queues- Priority Queue ADT, Bounded and unbounded Priority Queues
Advanced Linked List: Doubly Linked Lists-Organization and Operation, Circular Linked List-Organization and Operation, Multi Lists
|Unit 3||Recursion: Recursive Functions, Properties of Recursion, Its working, Recursive Applications
Hash Table: Introduction, Hashing-Linear Probing, Clustering, Rehashing, Separate Chaining, Hash Functions
Advanced Sorting: Merge Sort, Quick Sort, Radix Sort, Sorting Linked List
Binary Trees: Tree Structure, Binary Tree-Properties, Implementation and Traversals, Expression Trees, Heaps and Heapsort,Search Trees
|Unit 1||DERIVATIVES AND ITS APPLICATIONS:
Review of Functions, limit of a function, continuity of a function, derivative function. Derivative In Graphing And Applications: Analysis of Functions: Increase, Decrease, Concavity, Relative Extrema; Graphing Polynomials, Rational Functions, Cusps and Vertical Tangents. Absolute Maxima and Minima, Applied Maximum and Minimum Problems, Newton’s Method.
|Unit 2||INTEGRATION AND ITS APPLICATIONS:
An Overview of the Area Problem, Indefinite Integral, Definition of Area as a Limit; Sigma Notation, Definite Integral, Evaluating Definite Integrals by Substitution, Area Between Two Curves, Length of a Plane Curve. Numerical Integration: Simpson’s Rule. Modeling with Differential Equations, Separation of Variables, Slope Fields, Euler’s Method, First-Order Differential Equations and Applications.
|Unit 3||PARTIAL DERIVATIVES AND ITS APPLICATIONS:
Functions of Two or More Variables Limits and Continuity Partial Derivatives, Differentiability, Differentials, and Local Linearity, Chain Rule, Directional Derivatives and Gradients, Tangent Planes and Normal, Vectors, Maxima and Minima of Functions of Two Variables.
|Unit 1||Standard distributions: random variable; discrete, continuous, expectation and variance of a random variable, pmf, pdf, cdf, reliability, Introduction and properties without proof for following distributions; binomial, normal, chi-square, t, F. Examples|
|Unit 2||Hypothesis testing: one sided, two sided hypothesis, critical region, p-value, tests based on t, Normal and F, confidence intervals. Analysis of variance : one-way, two-way analysis of variance|
|Unit 3||Non-parametric tests: need of non-parametric tests, sign test, Wilicoxon’s signed rank test, run test, Kruskal-Walis tests. Post-hoc analysis of one-way analysis of variance : Duncan’s test Chi-square test of association|
|Unit 1||Green IT Overview: Introduction , Environmental Concerns and Sustainable Development, Environmental Impacts of IT, Green I , Holistic Approach to Greening IT, Greening IT, Applying IT for Enhancing Environmental Sustainability, Green IT Standards and Eco-Labelling of IT , Enterprise Green IT Strategy, Green Washing, Green IT: Burden or Opportunity?
Green Devices and Hardware: Introduction , Life Cycle of a Device or Hardware, Reuse, Recycle and Dispose
Green Software: Introduction , Processor Power States , Energy-Saving Software Techniques, Evaluating and Measuring Software Impact to Platform Power
Sustainable Software Development: Introduction, Current Practices, Sustainable Software, Software Sustainability Attributes, Software Sustainability Metrics, Sustainable Software Methodology, Defining Actions
|Unit 2||Green Data Centres: Data Centres and Associated Energy Challenges, Data Centre IT Infrastructure, Data Centre Facility Infrastructure: Implications for Energy Efficiency, IT Infrastructure Management, Green Data Centre Metrics
Green Data Storage: Introduction , Storage Media Power Characteristics, Energy Management Techniques for Hard Disks, System-Level Energy Management
Green Networks and Communications: Introduction, Objectives of Green Network Protocols, Green Network Protocols and Standards
Enterprise Green IT Strategy: Introduction, Approaching Green IT Strategies, Business Drivers of Green IT Strategy, Business Dimensions for Green IT Transformation, Organizational Considerations in a Green IT Strategy, Steps in Developing a Green IT Strategy, Metrics and Measurements in Green Strategies.
|Unit 3||Sustainable Information Systems and Green Metrics: Introduction, Multilevel Sustainable Information, Sustainability Hierarchy Models, Product Level Information, Individual Level Information, Functional Level Information, Organizational Level Information, Measuring the Maturity of Sustainable ICT
Enterprise Green IT Readiness: Introduction, Readiness and Capability, Development of the G-Readiness Framework, Measuring an Organization’s G-Readiness
Sustainable IT Services: Creating a Framework for Service Innovation: Introduction, Factors Driving the Development of Sustainable IT, Sustainable IT Services (SITS), SITS Strategic Framework
Green Enterprises and the Role of IT: Introduction, Organizational and Enterprise Greening, Information Systems in Greening Enterprises, Greening the Enterprise: IT Usage and Hardware, Inter-organizational Enterprise Activities and Green Issues